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《贝西斯敦铭文》新译(上)(20031218)

[日期: 2003-01-15 ] 来源: 小隐在线   作者: Amenhotp [字体: ]
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以下译文是由L.W. King与 R.C. Thompson两先生在1907年的伦敦出版的《大流士大王波斯贝希斯敦摩崖石刻与铭文》一书中发表的,某些细节根据阿姆斯特丹的Jona Lendering的意见作了细部修改,并添加了各节之题目。另有美国芝加哥大学将在下列网址推出新的译文:
Part one 第一部分
Introduction: Darius' titles and the extent of his empire
介绍:大流士之王号与其帝国四至
(1) I am Darius, the great king, king of kings, the king of Persia, the king of countries, the son of Hystaspes, the grandson of Arsames, the Achaemenian.
寡人大流士,伟大之王者,众王之王,波斯之王,列国之王,叙司塔司佩斯之子,阿尔沙米斯之孙,阿黑美尼之宗室。
(2) Thus said Darius, the King: My father is Hystaspes; the father of Hystaspes was Arsames; the father of Arsames was Ariaramnes; the father of Ariaramnes was Teispes; the father of Teispes was Achaemenes.
大流士王制曰:寡人之父乃叙司塔司佩斯,叙司塔司佩斯之父乃阿尔沙米斯,阿尔沙米斯之父乃阿里亚拉姆涅斯,阿里亚拉姆涅斯之父乃铁伊斯佩斯,铁伊斯佩斯之父乃阿黑美尼斯。
(3) Thus said Darius, the King: That is why we are called Achaemenians; from antiquity we have been nobel; from antiquity has our race been royal.
大流士王制曰:此即人称吾等为阿黑美尼人之缘故。寡人之族古来即为贵族,寡人之族人古来即为王者。
(4) Thus said Darius, the King: Eight of my race were kings before me; I am the ninth. Nine in succession we have been kings (or: In two lines have we been kings.) .
大流士王制曰:寡人之族,先于寡人称王者8人;寡人为第9人矣。吾等九人相继为王。(或:寡人之族人按照两支称王。)【注:此九王者:阿黑美尼斯、铁伊斯佩斯、铁伊斯佩斯之子阿里亚拉姆涅斯、铁伊斯佩斯之子居鲁士一世、阿里亚拉姆涅斯之子阿尔沙米斯(后被居鲁士二世推翻)、居鲁士一世之子冈比西斯一世、冈比西斯一世之子居鲁士二世、居鲁士二世之子冈比西斯二世、叙司塔司佩斯之子大流士一世。】
(5) Thus said Darius, the King: By the grace of Ahuramazda am I king; Ahuramazda has granted me the kingdom.
大流士王制曰:赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,寡人为王;阿胡拉马兹达授王国予寡人。
(6) 大流士王制曰:列省(列国)隶属寡人,且赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,寡人为列省(列国)之王:波斯、埃兰(苏撒亚纳)、巴比伦(尼亚)、亚述、阿拉比亚、埃及、沿海诸地(今叙利亚-巴勒斯坦之地/沿海诸岛?有争议)、斯巴达(指吕底亚首府萨迪斯Sardis/吕底亚)、爱奥尼亚[之希腊人]、米底、亚美尼亚、卡帕多西亚、帕提亚、德兰吉安纳、阿里亚、花拉子模、巴克特里亚、索格底亚纳、犍陀罗、西徐亚、撒塔巨底亚、阿拉霍西亚、马卡;计国二十又三。*(各行省地望考证另辟专文)
(7) Thus said Darius, the King: These are the countries which are subject to me; by the grace of Ahuramazda they became subject to me; they brought tribute unto me. Whatsoever commands have been laid on them by me, by night or by day, have been performed by them.
大流士王制曰:以上即是属寡人之国;赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,彼等臣于寡人,彼等纳贡赋于寡人。无论寡人令彼等行无论何事,彼等不分白昼黑夜遵旨行事。
(8) Thus said Darius, the King: Within these lands, whosoever was a friend, him have I surely protected; whosoever was hostile, him have I utterly destroyed. By the grace of Ahuramazda these lands have conformed to my decrees; as it was commanded unto them by me, so was it done.
大流士王制曰:此国之内,凡寡人之友人,寡人必妥加保护之;凡心怀敌意者,寡人必根绝诛灭之。赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,列国谨遵寡人的法令;凡寡人下达者,彼等俱谨遵不误。
(9) Thus said Darius, the King: Ahuramazda has granted unto me this empire. Ahuramazda brought me help, until I gained this empire; by the grace of Ahuramazda do I hold this empire.
大流士王制曰:阿胡拉马兹达将此帝国授予寡人。阿胡拉马兹达赐寡人予援助,直至寡人占有此帝国。赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,寡人保有此帝国。

Murder of Smerdis and coup of Gaumata the Magian 司美尔迪斯之伏诛及高墨达之乱
(10)大流士王制曰:下述即寡人继位后所所为。寡人之族人,居鲁士有子名冈比西斯者, 前于寡人践此王位。此冈比西斯有一兄弟,名曰司美尔迪斯(古波斯原文拼法为:巴尔迪亚),乃同父同母所生。冈比西斯诛此司美尔迪斯。方冈比西斯之诛司美尔迪斯也,国人于此杀戮并无知晓。冈比西斯遂往征埃及。及冈比西斯往埃及,国人心怀异志,国内谣言风起,遍及波斯、米底以及诸行省。
(11) Thus said Darius, the King: Afterwards, there was a certain man, a Magian, Gaumata by name, who raised a rebellion in Paishiyauvada,, in a mountain called Arakadriš;;. On the fourteenth day of the month Viyakhna [March 11, 522] did he rebel. He lied to the people, saying: 'I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus, the brother of Cambyses.' Then were all the people in revolt, and from Cambyses they went over unto him, both Persia and Media, and the other provinces. He seized on the kingdom; on the ninth day of the month Garmapada [July 1, 522] he seized on the kingdom. Afterwards, Cambyses died by his own hand.*
大流士王制曰:未几,有一名曰高墨达之人,实为一穆护僧,于阿拉卡德里什山中之皮什亚乌瓦达地方起而作乱。其作乱之时为维亚赫纳月14日(BC522年3月11日)也。彼谎骗国人云:“余司美尔迪斯,乃居鲁士之子,冈比西斯之弟。”国人遂尽数从之作乱,波斯、米底、他省之国人同弃冈比西斯而投彼伪司美尔迪斯。彼得此王国。加尔马帕达月第九日(BC522年7月1日),高墨达获此王国。后冈比西斯死于自手。*(冈比西斯之死另有详细讨论)
(12) Thus said Darius, the King: The kingdom of which Gaumata, the Magian, dispossessed Cambyses, had always belonged to our race. After that Gaumata, the Magian, had dispossessed Cambyses of Persia and Media, and of the other provinces, he did according to his will. He was (as) king.
大流士王制曰:穆护高墨达篡冈比西斯而得之王国,古来即属于寡人之家族。后穆护高墨达篡冈比西斯而得波斯、米底、他省。彼之所为顺其心意,遂僭王号。

Darius kills Gaumata and restores the kingdom 大流士诛高墨达复国
(13) 大流士王制曰:无虑波斯、米底亦或寡人之族人,无人可从穆护高墨达之手夺此国回。盖穆护高墨达诛杀熟识真司美尔迪斯者甚众,国人尤惧之。彼以下列之故诛之:“如此则人将不知吾实非居鲁士之子赛美尔迪斯也。”高墨达之行事国人三缄其口,直至寡人之来也。其时,寡人祷于阿胡拉马兹达,寡人获阿胡拉马兹达之神助。维巴卡亚基什月10日(BC522年9月29日)寡人领从者数人诛除穆护高墨达及其协从之谋主。寡人诛此贼于米底行省尼赛亚之西卡亚乌瓦提什之城塞。寡人为国诛此奸贼。赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,余践王祚,阿胡拉马兹达赐国予寡人。
(14) 大流士王制曰:寡人所复者,吾族所失之国也,寡人依其原而复之。举凡穆护高墨塔所毁之庙宇,寡人为国人兴复之;举凡穆护高墨达掠夺之牧场、畜群、居所(此处英文翻译者注明不确定,泼斯原文为maniyamaca,当代学者解为奴仆,servants)、房舍,寡人为国人兴复之。寡人处波斯、米底及他省之国人归其原位。举凡被劫掠之物寡人复之一如旧日。赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,寡人行之。寡人戮力兴复本族昔日之地位;赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,于穆护高墨塔弑君篡国事,寡人竭尽所能挫彼奸谋。
(15) Thus said Darius, the King: This was what I did after I became king.
大流士王制曰:此即寡人践祚后之所为。

Rebellions of Assina of Elam and Nidintu-Bel of Babylon 埃兰之阿辛纳与巴比伦之尼丁图-贝尔之乱
(16) Thus said Darius, the King: After I had slain Gaumata, the Magian, a certain man named Assina[Atrina], the son of Upadarma, raised a rebellion in Elam, and he spoke thus unto the people of Elam: 'I am king in Elam.' Thereupon the people of Elam became rebellious, and they went over unto that Assina; he became king in Elam. And a certain Babylonian named Nidintu-Bel, the son of Kin-Zer[Aniri?], raised a rebellion in Babylon: he lied to the people, saying: 'I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus.' Then did all the province of Babylonia go over to Nidintu-Bel, and Babylonia rose in rebellion. He seized on the kingdom of Babylonia [October 3, 522].
大流士王制曰:寡人既诛穆护高墨达,有一名曰阿辛纳之人,乃乌帕达尔玛之子,作乱于埃兰。彼告埃兰国人曰:“吾乃埃兰之王。”埃兰国人遂乱,投附于彼阿辛纳。彼人遂僭号称埃兰王。复次,有一名曰尼丁图·贝尔之巴比伦人,乃金泽尔(此处波斯文含糊,据阿卡德语版本应为阿尼利)之子,作乱于巴比伦城。彼谎骗国人云:“吾乃尼布甲尼撒,纳波尼德之子。(纳波尼德:古巴比伦最后一位本地出身的统治者,阿拉米人,BC539年10月12日被俘于居鲁士二世,国灭。)”巴比伦省全数国人往投尼丁图·贝尔,巴比伦遂乱。彼竟窃据巴比伦王国。(BC522年10月3日)
(17) Thus said Darius, the King: Then I sent [an army?] to Elam. That Assina was brought unto me in fetters, and I killed him.
大流士王制曰:寡人乃遣一偏师往平埃兰,缚送彼阿辛纳者于寡人,寡人斩之。
(18) Thus said Darius, the King: Then did I march against Babylon, against that Nidintu-Bel, who called himself Nebuchadnezzar. The army of Nidintu-Bel held the Tigris; there it took its stand, and on account of the waters [the river] was unfordable. Thereupon I supported my army on [inflated] skins, others I made camel-borne, for the rest I led forward horses. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda we crossed the Tigris. Then did I utterly overthrow that host of Nidintu-Bel. On the twenty-sixth day of the month Atriyadiya [December 13, 522] we joined battle.
大流士王制曰:嗣后,寡人往征巴比伦,讨伐彼自称尼布甲尼撒之尼丁图·贝尔。尼丁图·贝尔之师据底格里斯河以抗王师。此河湍险,不可涉渡。寡人遂命王师浮皮舟以济,余者或乘骆驼,或乘马直进。阿胡拉马兹达赐寡人援助,赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,王师济河。寡人大破尼丁图·贝尔之众。维阿西亚迪亚月26日(BC522年12月13日)王师破尼丁图·贝尔之众于底格里斯河岸。
(19) Thus said Darius, the King: After that I marched against Babylon. But before I reached Babylon, that Nidintu-Bel, who called himself Nebuchadnezzar, came with a host and offered battle at a city called Zazana, on the Euphrates. Then we joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did I utterly overthrow the host of Nidintu-Bel. The enemy fled into the water; the water carried them away. On the second day of the month Anamaka [December 18, 522] we joined battle.
大流士王制曰:寡人遂进略巴比伦。未及,彼自称尼布甲尼撒之尼丁图·贝尔引军至幼发拉底河畔扎赞纳之邑,邀战王师。王师进讨。阿胡拉马兹达赐寡人援助,赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,寡人大破尼丁图·贝尔之众。贼众溃奔于川,死之。为阿纳马卡月2日(BC522年12月18日),王师克尼丁图·贝尔之众于扎赞纳之邑。


Part two 第二部分
(20) Thus said Darius, the King: Then did Nidintu-Bel flee with a few horsemen into Babylon. Thereupon I marched to Babylon. By the grace of Ahuramazda I took Babylon, and captured Nidintu-Bel. Then I slew that Nidintu-Bel in Babylon.
大流士王制曰:尼丁图·贝尔引骑者数名往奔巴比伦。寡人乃进略巴比伦。赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,寡人克之,擒尼丁图·贝尔。寡人遂命彼弃市于巴比伦城。
(21) Thus said Darius, the King: While I was in Babylon, these provinces revolted from me: Persia, Elam, Media, Assyria, Egypt, Parthia, Margiana, Sattagydia, and Scythia.
大流士王制曰:方寡人之征巴比伦也,变乱生于下列诸省:波斯、埃兰、米底、亚述、埃及、帕提亚、马尔吉安纳(Merv) 、撒塔巨底亚、西徐亚。

Revolt of Martiya of Elam 埃兰人马尔提亚之乱
(22) Thus said Darius, the King: A certain man named Martiya, the son of Cincikhris, dwelt in a city in Persia called Kuganaka. This man revolted in Elam, and he said to the people: 'I am Ummanish, king in Elam.'
大流士王制曰:有一名曰马尔提亚之人,乃钦奇赫里什之子,曾居于波斯库干纳卡之邑,作乱于埃兰。彼告国人曰:“吾乃乌玛尼什,埃兰之王。”
(23) Thus said Darius, the King: At that time, I was friendly with Elam. Then there were Elamites afraid of me, and that Martiya, who was their leader, they seized and slew.
大流士王制曰:彼时寡人方亲近埃兰。埃兰之惧寡人者捕斩其首领马尔提亚。

Revolt of Phraortes of Media 米底人弗拉欧尔铁斯之乱
(24) Thus said Darius, the King: A certain Median named Phraortes revolted in Media, and he said to the people: 'I am Khshathrita, of the family of Cyaxares.' Then did the Medians who were in the palace revolt from me and go over to Phraortes. He became king in Media.
大流士王制曰:有一名曰弗拉欧尔铁斯之米底人,彼告其国人曰:“吾乃赫沙什里塔,库阿克撒列斯(米底帝国开国之先王)之族属。”卫宫之米底军士叛寡人,投附于弗拉欧尔铁斯。彼遂僭号米底王。
(25) Thus said Darius, the King: The Persian and Median army, which was with me, was small. Yet I sent forth an[other] army. A Persian named Hydarnes, my servant, I made their leader, and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that Median host which does not acknowledge me.' Then Hydarnes marched forth with the army. When he had come to Media, at a city in Media called Marush, he gave battle to the Medes. He who was chief among the Medes was not there at that time. Ahuramazda brought me help: by the grace of Ahuramazda my army utterly defeated that rebel host. On the twenty-seventh day of the month Anamaka [January 12, 521] the battle was fought by them. Then did my army await me in a district in Media called Kampanda, until I came into Media.
大流士王制曰:寡人麾下之波斯-米底王师甚寡,而寡人遣师往伐。寡人命寡人之小臣波斯人叙达尔涅斯为将,诏曰:“行矣!击灭彼不从王命之米底叛军!” 叙达尔涅斯挥师往征。既至米底,叙达尔涅斯战米底之众于米底马鲁什之邑。彼时米底之酋帅未临。阿胡拉马兹达赐寡人援助,赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,王师大败叛军。维阿纳马卡月27日(BC521年1月12日),王师败米底叛众于马鲁什之邑。王师遂屯于米底坎帕达之地,候寡人之临。

Revolt of the Armenians 亚美尼亚之乱
(26) Thus said Darius, the King: An Armenian named Dadarshish , my servant, I sent into Armenia, and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that host which is in revolt and does not acknowledge me.' Then Dadarshish went forth. When he came into Armenia, the rebels assembled and advanced against Dadarshish to give him battle. At a place in Armenia called Zuzza they fought the battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the eighth day of the month Thuravahara [May 20, 521] the battle was fought by them.
大流士王制曰:寡人再遣寡人之小臣亚美尼亚人达达尔希什征亚美尼亚。寡人诏曰:“行矣!击灭彼背叛寡人不从王命之众!” 达达尔希什挥师往征。既至亚美尼亚,贼众聚师而前,邀战于达达尔希什。遂战于祖扎之野。阿胡拉马兹达赐寡人援助,赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,王师大破叛军。维图哈瓦哈拉月8日(BC521年5月20日)王师破叛众于祖扎之野。
(27)大流士王制曰:叛众复聚,再邀战于达达尔希什。遂战于亚美尼亚之提格拉堡。阿胡拉马兹达赐寡人援助,赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,王师大破叛军。维图哈瓦哈拉月18日(BC521年5月30日)王师破叛众于提格拉堡{,馘磿五百四十有六级,俘人则五百有二十夫}。
(28) Thus said Darius, the King: The rebels assembled for the third time and advanced against Dadarshish to give him battle. At a stronghold in Armenia called Uyama they joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the ninth day of the month Thaigarcish [June 20, 521] the battle was fought by them. Then Dadarshish waited for me in Armenia, until I came into Armenia.
大流士王制曰:叛众复聚者三,邀战于达达尔希什。遂战于亚美尼亚之乌亚玛堡。阿胡拉马兹达赐寡人援助,赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,王师大破叛军。维泰卡尔奇什月9日(BC521年6月20日)王师破叛众于乌亚玛堡。王师乃屯于亚美尼亚,候寡人之临。
(29) Thus said Darius, the King: A Persian named Vaumisa, my servant, I sent into Armenia, and I said unto him: 'Go, smite that host which is in revolt, and does not acknowledge me.' Then Vaumisa went forth. When he had come to Armenia, the rebels assembled and advanced against Vaumisa to give him battle. At a place in Assyria called Izala they joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. On the fifteenth day of the month Anamaka [December 31, 522] the battle was fought by them. {They slew two thousand and four and twenty of them.}
大流士王制曰:寡人遣寡人之小臣波斯人瓦乌米萨征亚美尼亚。寡人诏曰:“行矣!击灭彼背叛寡人不从王命之众!” 瓦乌米萨挥师往征。既至亚美尼亚,贼众聚师而前,邀战于瓦乌米萨。遂战于亚述之伊扎拉之野。阿胡拉马兹达赐寡人援助,赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,王师大破叛军。维阿纳马卡月15日(BC522年12月31日)王师破叛众于伊扎拉之野{,馘磿二千二十有四级}。
(30) Thus said Darius, the King: The rebels assembled a second time and advanced against Vaumisa to give him battle. At a place in Armenia called Autiyara they joined battle. Ahuramazda brought me help; by the grace of Ahuramazda did my army utterly overthrow that rebel host. At the end of the month Thuravahara [June 11, 521] the battle was fought by them. { They slew two thousand and forty and five of them, and they took one thousand five handred and eight and fifty alive.}Then Vaumisa waited for me in Armenia, until I came into Armenia.
大流士王制曰:贼众复聚,邀战于瓦乌米萨。遂战于亚美尼亚之阿胡提亚拉之野。阿胡拉马兹达赐寡人援助,赖阿胡拉马兹达之恩宠,王师大破叛军。维图哈瓦哈拉月底(BC521年6月11日)王师破叛众于阿胡提亚拉之野{,馘磿二千四十有五级,俘人千五百五十有八夫}。王师乃屯于亚美尼亚,候寡人之临。

End of the revolt of the Medes 米底叛乱之终结
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